Groat, Linda N., Architectural research methods.ā€“Second Edition / Linda N . Groat, David Wang. pages cm. Includes index. ISBN (pbk.); . š¯—£š¯——š¯—™ |. | ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists. In , Linda Groat and David Wang published a text on research methods specifically. A practical guide to research for architects anddesigners--now updated and expanded! From searching for the best glass to prevent glare todetermining how .

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This graduate seminar is an intensive course in research methods for students with Groat, Linda and David Wang. Architectural Research Methods (). Table of Contents (PDF) Chapter 01 (PDF) Linda N. Groat, David Wang A practical guide to research for architects and designersā€”now updated and This book's unique coverage of research methods is specifically targeted to help . Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record. Link back to 1 Linda Groat and David Wang, Architectural Research Methods (Wiley, ). 2 Donald A.

The regulators, conservators, interpreters, and stewards are areas with slightly different foci, and as such, will engender research questions specific to these practitioners. Regulators are interested in understanding the needs and values of stakeholders.

Conservators are interested in understanding how interventions in the fabric of buildings, places, and landscapes can be balanced with the retention of authenticity.

The interpreters are concerned with the informational value of the historic environment and effective ways to communicate this information and engage the public. Research Area: The Stewards Stewardship of the historic environment is closely linked with advocacy and a need to understand community values while emphasizing the retention of historic fabric, 16 patina, and age value. Stewards are motivated by advocacy and education in an effort to conserve the historic environment for the public benefit.

While these research questions are not meant to encompass every possible scenario, they do present a range of possible avenues of inquiry, any of which could be applied by a student to a particular thesis topic.

The RCIS categories offer a helpful way of describing practice so that a student can consider options for research that would have a larger and more relevant impact on the professional world. Students who approach research in this way are likely to transfer this expertise to their own professional practice. At a minimum, it would encourage empirically based problem solving by enabling burgeoning historic preservation professionals to be able to reference and understand existing research; ideally, such a professional would continue to engage in this kind of research for the benefit of the discipline and his or her clients.

This methodology was borrowed from the discipline of history, especially as it applies to local history or public history research. Unless a student enters a program with a social science background or seeks courses outside of the normal curriculum, it is a fair assumption that a student will need to be taught how to conduct social science research before he or she is able to undertake an empirical thesis.

This requirement is a daunting challenge, as the potential number of social science research methodologies is large, ranging from ethnography and grounded theory to phenomenology and action research. In the social sciences, each discipline is normally expected to learn only one or two of these methodologies. For instance, anthropologists learn ethnography while sociologists learn grounded theory and survey research. Is it even possible to entertain the requirement that historic preservation students could learn the methodologies of anthropology, sociology, psychology, and humanistic geography?

Realistically, the answer is no, this is simply not feasible. In addition, many quantitative social science research methodologies require a student to have a background in inferential, multivariate statistics, while many qualitative methodologies are time consuming in the data-gathering phase.

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The limitations of these methodologies are presented in Table 2. Methodology Limitations Ethnography incl. Grounded theory Time consuming data gathering due to need to define a theory from the data; difficult to collect sufficient data in a single semester. Phenomenology Difficult for students to apply in a single semester because of the need to understand the structuralist philosophical basis for the lifeworld.

Ethnomethodology Difficult to apply without a sociology background. Action research Too much time needed; difficult to complete in a single semester.

Experimental research Difficult to apply without a science and statistics background. What is possible, however, is that historic preservation students can be taught a range of pragmatic research methodologies.

A pragmatic social science research methodology meets the following four requirements: 1. It must be usable by a graduate student who may not have a significant social science background. Data can be collected and analyzed in a single semester. The methodology is able to answer a specific research question. A few social science research methodologies meet these requirements, including qualitative case studies using interview methods, survey correlational research, content analysis, photo sort operations commonly used in environmental behavior research, non- participant observation, and the rapid ethnographic assessment procedure.

The qualitative case study using interviews as a method is a well-established technique with a robust following. The advantage to qualitative interviewing is that achieving the emic internal perspective of ethnography is not assumed, thereby reducing the amount of time required to gather the data. If, however, the goal is to gather and analyze data in a single semester, these limitations can be accepted as long as the student acknowledges them.

Survey or correlational research has a long history in sociology. Usually associated with quantitative research, data are gathered via a survey instrument or questionnaire taken by the respondent or administered by the researcher. Responses consist of numerical variables that are conducive to statistical analysis.

While multivariate inferential statistics are often employed, such as ANOVA, regression, and factor analysis, many research questions can be answered using simple descriptive statistics.

Students, through the use of free and commercial software, can be taught how to utilize simple analyses, such as the t-test and chi-square, in describing the statistical relevance of their data. The major advantage to survey research is that the data can be gathered and analyzed fairly quickly within a single semester.

The methodology can be quantitative, qualitative, or both. For instance, word frequency analysis indicates how often certain phrases appear in media to understand communicative values while this same media can also be analyzed in terms of patterns or themes, much as ethnography would do with a transcribed interview.

As long as the analyzed media is reasonably comprehensive, a student should be able to gather and analyze data in a single semester. Observation within an ethnographic context is the process whereby the researcher gathers data on the behavior of people that consists of a wide variety of verbal and nonverbal actions and phenomena.

Participant observation requires that the student first immerse himself or herself in the cultural group under study by becoming an active, accepted, and contributing member of the group, thereby gaining an internal, or emic, perspective, which can be very time consuming.

With structured nonparticipant observation, the student creates a meaning framework prior to collecting the data and then develops a behavior schema to collect quantitative information about this behavior.

Architectural Research Methods, 2nd Edition

A student using unstructured nonparticipant observation collects data first and then applies a behavior schema to it afterward. To date, I have located only one social science research approach that has been specifically designed for assessing heritage values. In the s, Setha Low adapted 21 existing ethnographic methods for the purpose of assessing heritage values. The methods utilized include physical traces mapping, behavioral mapping, transect walks, individual interviews, expert interviews, impromptu group interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and the use of historical and archival documents.

Helping Students with the Empirical Thesis Process In order to encourage students to pursue empirical theses using social science research methodologies, more attention should be paid to giving students the skills to successfully complete the process. Oftentimes students are essentially left to their own devices when working on a thesis or choosing an advisor and a reader or readers, or perhaps they receive advice from a faculty member. Unless there is a specific research methods course or a seminar preparing students to work on a thesis,32 students may have little or no idea how to structure a research proposal, conduct a literature review, and what the overall structure for a social science-based thesis is.

Architectural Research Methods, 2nd Edition

While there are many useful books on preparing research proposals and a social science thesis, none focus on built environment research, much less the historic environment. European heritage studies programs, because they are often affiliated with archaeology and anthropology programs, typically provide a research methods course in preparation for the thesis.

These and other models from built environment programs may prove useful in informing curricular options for historic preservation programs. At Roger Williams University, I teach a thesis preparatory seminar in the fall in order to ready students for their thesis in the spring. Students are encouraged to begin to think about a thesis topic and to investigate literature a year before their thesis is due; by the time they arrive in class for the fall semester, many students have settled on a broad topic area, which I help them refine throughout the course.

The first focus is on completing a literature review.

Using this foundation, my students then use Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Columb, and Joseph M.

Architectural Research Methods

Students have 23 an opportunity in class to develop sample research designs based on different methodologies and to explore which methodologies may be a better fit given a particular research question.

Throughout the entire class the need to develop a consistent research question that is narrow enough to be addressed in a single semester is emphasized; I present the thesis, therefore, as an answer to this question. Overall, this process has worked well, but I have continually been unhappy with the research methodology texts that are available as most assume a specific disciplinary background of the student, such as anthropology, sociology, or psychology, or are written at too difficult a level to serve as introductory texts.

Other issues include too much emphasis on quantitative or qualitative research rather than a balance between the two again, issues rooted in particular disciplines for which the texts are targeted and a lack of coverage of relevant, pragmatic research methodologies.

John W. It therefore becomes increasingly important that students understand the empirical research process and the application of pragmatic quantitative and qualitative research 24 methodologies if they are to be more effective professionals. While the immediate impact is the ability of students to contribute novel research to the discipline through thesis work, the skills that they learn are likely to be employed in professional contexts that will lead to better decision-making processes based on evidence rather than the doctrines that drive so much of contemporary preservation practice.


Although my own experience is anecdotal, I have found that my historic preservation students have the capacity to learn how to use pragmatic research methodologies to create empirical theses that address important questions in the field. The larger question is to what extent this should be encouraged in other programs that address the historic environment.

If we, as a discipline, believe that historic preservation practice needs a stronger empirical basis for its actions and that better tools are needed to assess and understand stakeholder values, then we owe it to our students to equip them with the skills necessary to address this deficit.

Singletary and James A. This book's unique coverage of research methods is specifically targeted to help professional designers and researchers better conduct and understand research. Part I explores basic research issues and concepts, and includes chapters on relating theory to method and design to research. Part II gives a comprehensive treatment of specific strategies for investigating built forms.

In all, the book covers seven types of research, including historical, qualitative, correlational, experimental, simulation and modeling, logical argumentation, and case study and mixed methods. Complete with real-life examples of how good research can be used from project inception to completion, Architectural Research Methods is an essential reference for architecture students and researchers as well as architects, interior designers, landscape architects, and building product manufacturers.

Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 9. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Architectural Research Methods , please sign up.

Be the first to ask a question about Architectural Research Methods. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order. Jun 10, Jeroen rated it really liked it. Excellent course book for master students in architectural design. The book offers a broad selection of different research methods and illustrates them with clear cut examples. Must have as a crash course in design research and research by design.

Rayan Kammoun rated it really liked it Sep 29, Dian rated it really liked it Mar 06, Mohammed Bay rated it it was amazing Aug 20, Moon rated it liked it Sep 27, John Carlo rated it it was amazing Nov 26, Paula rated it really liked it Apr 20, Carolina Marty rated it liked it Nov 23, Katherine rated it liked it Jul 18, Sabrina rated it liked it Feb 09, Tijmen rated it liked it Jan 23, Mostafa rated it really liked it Mar 30, Slade Beard rated it really liked it Jun 11, Vahid Poursaeed rated it really liked it Oct 27, Again, there is no ethical position on whether or not one set of values is more important than another; it simply shows that there are often opposed values in preservation practice.

As it is envisioned today, a thesis provides an opportunity for a student to understand the process of research and its importance in empirical decision making. For instance, an executive director at a statewide preservation trust is driven by the need to preserve the age value of places, but is much more likely to be influenced by community values than expert values.

Rating details. Community Reviews. Although my own experience is anecdotal, I have found that my historic preservation students have the capacity to learn how to use pragmatic research methodologies to create empirical theses that address important questions in the field. Customers who bought this item also bought. Drmeldrenachapin rated it really liked it Sep 10, In order to answer this 3 question, it is necessary to differentiate the empirical thesis from other kinds of capstone projects.

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