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Watercolor painting is difficult enough without hindering yourself with unnecessary obstacles. You should be comfortable, ergonomically organized and use the best equipment you can afford. As I travel around fulfilling teaching assignments I am constantly surprised at the number of students who have been painting in watercolor for years and yet have managed to avoid learning some of the most basic skills required to produce successful watercolors.
It's like trying to drive a car without knowing how to change gears, so you settle for traveling everywhere in first gear! I recall one person who handled her watercolors with amazing dexterity considering she held her brush as one would hold a knife!
Many ex-oil painters tend to do this, by the way. She had been doing this for some 30 years. Oh,which would have been perfectly on top of their work because they had the ignorance of youth. No wonder he couldn't and their palette on the other. A set-up You should have enough room sounderstand why the paintings looked like this requires many precarious that you can step back and look at yourtoo warm!
You should wet or fully-loaded brush, and really it's also have a large mirror that you can use I have dramatically improved the only a matter of time before there is a to check any faults that might otherwisepainting skills of many students by giving catastrophe. Instead, place your water escape notice. Viewing through a mirrorthem the same kind of basic tips I'm container next to your palette on the side is particularly useful when paintinggoing to give you.
While your level of talent bowls in still lifes — any errors will be It's easy to want to have fun and play will not improve because you have immediately apparent when you view thewith watercolor. Many people have fallen correctly positioned your equipment your painting in reverse in the mirror.
Why make thehard way that creating traditional difficult act of watercolor painting even If you paint at night you must invest inpaintings is not easy. There are no harder then it is? I have a purpose-built studio which Ordinary light globes have the wrong I know some of you will find all this I designed myself, and it has certainly color cast and will trick your eye,somewhat obvious but I wish somebody served me well.
I use outdoor light and your colors will be truer. I began my journey; it might have saved a blind to adjust the brightness. This wasme many years of struggle and knowledge learned the hard way. Many Your studio should have plenty offrustration.
There's nothing worse than Remember that the chains of bad my hand formed a shadow over my work. Studio equipmentIdeally, every artist should have a studio. However this is not always possible, andthose who don't have that luxury shouldtake heart from the fact that manywonderful paintings have been producedon the kitchen table!
That's the beauty ofwatercolor painting. It's quick to set upand pack up, relatively cheap and it'sportabfe, If you do paint in the kitchen atleast set yourself up so that everythingis ergonomically arranged. Ergonomicshas to do with the efficiency ofmovement. For instance, don't haveyour palette on your left if you areright-handed, or vice versa!
Think howimpossible it would be to keep an eye onyour work while your arm is reaching overyour painting towards your palette orwater bucket. I have also seen students spill paint Vermilion Red Permanent Violet pencils dig into the surface and are impossible to erase. It is imperative to use a Peacock Blue beautifully sharpened pencil. It's quite simply an impossible thing to do. You should restrict erasing to the very minimum or, better still, don't do any at all.
I quite like to leave pencil lines as part of the finished work. This is certainly better than having bands of smudgy marks left by an eraser. If you must use an eraser please use the softest one you can find, the kneadable type used for charcoal is best. Likewise, you will neversheet of paper or, worse still, on a freshly Elvis Presley. My studio is also fairly do a decent painting if you are usingfinished painting that was your best one modern and has little resemblance to brushes of dubious quality.
I like to listen to music while First of all, just like your pencils, your Most of all, your studio must have as painting, so I have a good CD player and brushes must have perfect points.
Youmuch bench space as possible. They need not be thewell as all the tables for my references, most expensive in the shop, there arephotographs, books and all the other bits Easel some wonderful nylon brushes on thewe seem to collect.
All this material must Your easel should provide a flat surface market today. Actually, I find sablebe easily accessible because it is so with a variety of angles, like a drafting brushes too soft and they lose theireasy to lose inspiration and momentum table. It should be sturdy but easily points quickly. Even your largest brushesat the best of times, let alone while maneuverable.
If you prefer to stand must be pointy.
Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML
How will you cut aroundsearching for that elusive sketch or while working, the table should be the any square shapes if your brush has aphotograph. By the time you have found right height. I like to sit most of the time round tip? I stand up when Have a good range of brushes, butthousand pieces!
Which is certainly not doing major washes or large paintings. Ultimately the studio has to suit the Your pencils should be of medium Always relate the size of your brush toartist's personality and it must be hardness such as 2B or 4B because the size of the shape you are painting. I have collected many bits pencils that are too soft tend to smudge Large brush for targe shapes, mediumof memorabilia while on painting trips and and produce dirty drawings, particularly brush for medium shapes and smallI like looking at them from time to time on rough paper.
On the other hand, hard brush for small shapes. It's all so logical. For instance, my prizedpossession is a clock in the shape of There is just one way to hold a brush correctly! You must hold it lightly and as far back up the handle as possible. You must never grip your brush in a white knuckle fashion close to the tip. You should alwayspaint without touching the paper withyour hand. The brush should dancefreely across the paper without everlosing freedom of movement anddexterity.
Never dab or puddle! Useconfident strokes with the outmosteconomy. Even the word itself describes it as sundry things. This gives me the flexibility toingredients: one is water and the other range from broad washes to relativelyis pigment.
I'll tell you more about that you'll find there are plenty to choose small details. However, a lot of them have too For outdoor work I simply tape the paperI believe watercolor in tubes is best many color wells and not enough areas down to my board with some maskingbecause it can be used liberally and is for mixing color, so choose one with tape. Or I use block paper which isgentlest on the brushes. However pans generous areas for color mixing so you already stretched.
Before I paint larger scale workWhichever you use don't be too stingy I stretch my paper by soaking it first and - downloading good quality will pay off in the Water container then I tape it down with gum tape. Not only will cheap colors fade but, When you are painting it is essential to board you use to tape the paper ontoworse still, they are terrible to use.
They continually wash out your brushes must be primed or sealed in some way towill not flow or mix on the paper and you perfectly clean in order to mix different prevent staining.
download a light board whichwill miss out on that wonderful watercolor colors. I have seen countless students is easily maneuverable and keep differenttranslucency. You need I think most artists own too many a large water container that will hold Miscellaneous items There are othertubes of various colors. After all there are at least five pints or more. That will numerous bits and pieces we use whenonly three colors — red, blue and yellow give you plenty of room to swish the painting and I have certainly seen some - with hundreds of variations on the brush around.
You might consider two peculiar equipment in my time.
So you need not own every tube containers in order to have access to was a student who had a full set ofever known to man. Four clean water.
Some people justvariations of each primary color Paper can't leave their work at work! If you needare Paper type is your choice entirely.
The to use that old credit card for scraping, orenough. You can see my list of colors on style of painting will determine the the garden water spray for specialthe opposite page. Some artists prefer a effects, so be it! Whatever makes you rough surface, which is better for comfortable and makes the difficult job ofPalette impressionistic, looser types of work. When I first began to paint so many Others use a smooth surface to createyears ago I used a white dinner plate as highly detailed work.
The surface I seempart of my equipment. One day I wentout on a painting trip and discoveredI had left my palette behind. I had to useone of the hubcaps from my car instead! Another time when short of a paletteI picked up a milkshake container fromthe trash bin and fashioned that into apalette!
Nowadays I keep one paletteexclusively for outdoor work. Most of my students seem to havereasonable palettes but I have seensome amazing things, like the greencolored plate I mentioned before, as wellas egg containers, tiny dishes and other 17 CHAPTER 2It's a case of being in the right place at the right time, If I had to name one single factor that lifted my work away from the ordinary it would be my journeys into the Great Studio Outside.
I cannot overemphasize the importance of working on location. It is crucial. Initially I did it out of sheer ignorance. I watched artists in the movies and thought that was how it was done.
Thank goodness for the ignorance of youth. If you don't do much work on location I strongly advise you to start. Watercolor is a perfect medium for this because it is quick and portable. When I judge art competitions it's easy to see which paintings were done exclusively in the studio or done in the studio from photographs.
It is a good idea topark your easel well out of the way ofpedestrians. It is also important to position youreasel where you will be safe, preferably withyour back against a wall. For instance, on thisnarrow footpath in Venice I had to be careful thatover-enthusiastic backslappers did notinadvertently push me into the canal. Many people work from photographs,but it is important to realize that thecamera merely records a flat visualpattern, It cannot discern mood-unless you are an extremely competentphotographer.
In photographs the tonalvalues are totally skewed, with the darkshadows simply black and showing norecession of tone with distance. Photographs also give a false impressionof color. To give just one example, whenyou look at a grassy field in real life youwill see a myriad of colors and tonalvalues, whereas a photograph will merelyrecord the field as a monotonous greencolor. So make on-site sketches anddrawings and only take photographs forreference and to jog your memory inthe studio.
But when you do takephotographs, compose them as if youwere composing a painting and you willbe introducing a satisfying artisticelement.
As usual, in all aspects of art thereare constant contradiction. Yes, it ismuch easier to produce finished,competent work in the studio, butwithout an injection from Mother Naturewe soon find ourselves producing stale,useless paintings which lack the magictouch of inspiration. It is imperative to work outdoors fromtime to time to keep that magic touchalive. I would run a trying to pack in all that detail.
Be happy mile if I saw somebody approaching. You can always add detail later in because for some reason everybody has the comfort of your studio. It is also to see what you're doing and, worse still, easier to see your painting in its own wants to give advice or ask numerous right in the studio and judge it on its questions. It's interesting that nobody merits and not against the subject. The drawing You require very few items of equipment 3.
The on-site painting for drawing outdoors — a sketchbook The third and I have to say the most and some pencils, and a stool if you can important stage of painting outdoors is carry it. Avoid erasers at all costs. Every trying to complete a presentable painting line is precious. I believe drawing is an there and then.
It is by far the most art form in itself and is very much difficult but also the most satisfying neglected. In fact, I often regret having to painting you can do. For this you will cover a lovely drawing with pigment.
The color sketches specifically for watercolor painting. This is a neat briefcase involves coloring those drawings or with fold-out legs. It holds the paper and completing rough sketches in paint only. I carry water with a few brushes and a sketchbook. I carry a briefcase wherever I go that contains all I need to execute a quick sketch. Some are done sitting in a car or cafe and others while simply leaning on a lamppost.
If the quality of the light is dull, you are likelyto end up with a somber painting with graycolors and subtle tonal contrasts.
He is a true eccentric and makes me laugh endlessly. This time however, he just simply served as a prop for my painting. I never meant to include Herman but when the painting was completed it desperately needed something in the foreground.
The true subject of this painting is the morning light. You'll see the same cottage in the middle ground in my mood scale demonstration.
Don't wear sunglasses, and don't wear brightly coloredwhich is set by the quality of the light and by the tonal and clothes either because they will reflect their colors ontocolor qualities of the major shapes. I will go into this in more your work. A hat is a must not so much to protect you from sunburn1. You must avoid working in full sun because this will dry but to stop your eyes from being blinded by the light.
How your painting way too fast. Working in strong sunlight will trick you into painting too dark because you will be compensating for the bright light. Don't use a red you bring home that wonderful, spontaneous painting full of one, like a friend of mine did once.
When he got home he qualities which seem impossible to create in the studio. These wondered why his painting looked so cold. I call it recharging the creative batteries.
Here, the tower suggested a vertical format. When I paint on location I never paint larger than half-sheet. I chose a quarter-sheet for this one because it was a good manageable size, given the warm weather. I taped the paper at its perimeter with masking tape onto my Z-easel. I don't stretch paper less than full sheet size.
The easel has a work plane that can be adjusted to allow me to paint at several angles. W hen you drawing. As soon as I feel it's good enough,paint into the light the objects are reduced I start to paint. Here mytheir windows and complex architectural water, tube paints, palette and atomizer are by my brush handdetailing. Backlighting allows you to eliminate so I don't have to risk dripping water or pigment onto mythe detail to a great extent.
This not only saves painting by reaching across to the other side. The other advantage of painting into the lightis that your work will be shaded. If you paintdown the light, with sunlight shining directlyfrom behind you, the paper becomes so brightthat you tend to overcompensate and applyexcessive pigment. As a consequence, thepainting will look dark and dirty when viewed innormal light. Towards thebottom'l increase the strength and color of the wash to resemble milk consistency.
This is used forsustaining the buildings, water and the footpath. I leave white highlights for future use. I let this dry.
When you paint things like this tower, don't be too neat with your lines or you will end up with straight lines with little character. On the other hand, you have to make sure that the shape is right.
Any corrections can be done while the wash is wet; you cannot correct the shape once the wash has dried.
You also have to hint at the architectural shapes and darker values within the major shapes while the wash is wet or damp so that these details melt into the wash. All the shapes must be joined by the flow of the same wash or you will end up with an unrelated and unconnected series of shapes.
I am beginning to regret selling paintings done on location because each one has a particular memory of the time spent painting it. This time a barge pulled up in front of me and, to my amazement, there was a grand piano on its deck! This was unloaded with much shouting and help from passers-by. For a moment I thought I would become a part-time piano mover as well! NoI compare the addition of detail with the way a woman adorns herself with photograph could tell that story.
You'lltaillights — is added to create interest. These details come last and I amusing a rich mix of pure color. I avoid using too many colors because I want to see how I did this on pages When I feel I have put in enough, I stop.
Ihave ruined too many paintings on location by continuing to paint every bit Isee. One could spend hours doing this and it's an easy trap to fall into. Click into the body of your HTML document where you want to add comments. On the line before the text you want to turn into block quotes.
Type your comments. At the end of the heading. To insert a horizontal line in your page. To add a comment. Open your HTML page created in the previous chapters. On the line after the last text in the body. Nested Lists os 6. Bulleted Unordered Lists es 6. Numbered Ordered Lists 6.
Creating Lists ly! Related Tags: My list: First Item B. You can also begin the numbering ordering at any point in the sequence as well using the START attribute. Numbered lists sometimes called Ordered Lists are generally used to list items by their priority or their sequence in a process.
Second Item C. Numbered Ordered Lists: List sequence uses A. You have five choices when creating numbered lists: Upper-case letters A. My List: End Tag: Is circle. You have three choices when creating bulleted lists: Bulleted Unordered Lists: Choose from bulleted or numbered attributes see those sections pu Related Tags: Our Most Popular Tutorials: This can come in handy when you wish to display items at different levels within a list hierarchy.
You have the flexibility of creating both numbered or bulleted lists as nested lists. Nested Lists: When you create a definition list. Definition Lists: What do the applications do? Access e Create databases and programs to track and manage your information. At the point where you want to add an ordered list, type the first part of the start tag: Type the text for the first item in your list. Repeat steps 4 through 7 for each addition line item.
At the point where you want to add an unordered list, type: Repeat steps 4 through 7 for each additional list item. To add a nested list, complete steps in either of the examples above, and place all of the information within an existing list element. At the point where you want to add a definition list, type: Type the text from the first term in your list.
Type the text for your definition. Repeat steps 2 through 9 for each additional list item. On the line after the last text in the body, type: This is an ordered list: Save Document lua e va or -f ple m Sa. Always test your links before you publish your HTML page so that users have a positive experience. Secure is used when handling secure transactions that require information to be encrypted such as credit card information in a commerce pu transaction.
Links ly! Most of the time when you are surfing the Web. If the page you are linking to is not the main page of the site. The host name is tio also called a domain. By clicking on a link. An absolute link va generally refers to and is used to create a link that takes the user to a specific page on the Web outside of the current website. The second part is the host name. What are Links?: As mentioned earlier. You can link users to other pages on your site.
Links most often take the form of underlined text. You use relative links to refer to e pages on the same website. There are two types of links you can create in HTML — absolute and relative. For example: Be careful when typing these Web addresses. When a link is created and a mouse pointer is held over the image or text that is a link. An absolute link contains a complete URL.
The link appears as the m specified picture. This is accomplished in the same manner as text links. The link appears as Home underlined text. Image Links: Text Links: When a mouse pointer is held over the image. The following is an example of a typical ink tag: The display text.
The link activates a new Home browser window or tab. This tag will cause all links on the page to open in a new window or tab. This is considered good practice when linking to pages outside of es your own website so that your users have access to the information but do not actually leave your site. There may be times when you wish to open the page in a new browser window or tab.
You can also set all of the links on an HTML page to open in a new window or tab each time the link is clicked. Opening a Page in a New Window or Tab: To set an individual link to open in a new browser window. Also called bookmarks, these links are helpful for especially long pages, or when you want to make navigation easy on the page and organize information for the user. For example, you may want to use. Creating a bookmark is a two-step process.
First, you must identify and name the spot on your page that you want to link to. Within the. Second, create a link to your newly named area, with a slight variation. For bookmarks, place a pound sign immediately before the name of the anchor.
Learn More The link takes the user to the specified anchor. In this e. Available Colors: Green -f ple m Sa. To create an e-mail link, you use mailto:?
This can be useful by helping you quickly identify or organize your e-mails. Comments and Questions pre-populated subject. One important thing to keep in mind is that the user must have the correct e. If you provide a link to a Microsoft Excel file and the user does not have Microsoft Excel on their computer, they will encounter problems. For this reason, it is a good idea to tell your users what type of file it is. Depending upon the file type, the user will probably be prompted to or.
To create a link to other types of files, use the file name as the HREF value. Make sure the file you are pointing to is uploaded to your server, so the user actually has access to it. At the point where you want to add a text link, type the tag: Type the text that you want to display as the link ex: Home Page.
At the point where you want to add an image link, type the tag: Type the tag: At the point where you want to add a link to open in a new window or tab, type the tag: Type the text that you want to display as the link or the image path as in the previous exercise. At the location on the page that you want to link to, type: Create the link in the location of your choice by typing: At the point where you want to add the e-mail link, type: At the point where you want to add the link, type the tag: To add and change the properties of several links in the HTML page created in previous chapters.
Save Document. Open your HTML page created in previous chapters. At the top of the page. Adding Images to Webpages es 8. Introduction to Images for Webpages 8. Alternative ALT Text rp 8. Re-Sizing an Image os 8. GIF supports colors and is primarily used when your image has only a few colors and basic lines and shapes. GIF is also used to display short.
There are many different image and graphics editing n programs on the market today to help edit your images. The value is the name of the image.
With the image editing program of your choice. You will need to consider both the number of images in your webpage as well as the individual image sizes. Images ly! None Attributes: There are many different file types used for images in webpages. These programs will allow you to adjust the resolution of the image the higher the resolution.
Adding Images to Webpages: It is generally considered best practice to keep individual image sizes at K and below. When a user visits your webpage. They will allow you to optimize your tio images before you insert them into your HTML code. It is important to understand the different file types and how browsers es display them. The more images there are and the larger the file sizes.
Introduction to Images for Webpages: If the image is hosted on a different server. Some users turn images off in the browsers to increase download speeds. If part of your goal is to optimize your webpage for search engines.
Re-Sizing an Image: Users who have images turned on in their browser do not see the ALT text. When this is done. To add alternative text to your image. Alternative Text: Users who have images turned off will see the ALT text.
Mastering HTML5 CSS3
When you apply the size attributes. Use caution when re-sizing your image using HTML coding. When a user places their mouse pointer over the Result: None os Attributes: Image Labels: At the point where you want to add the image. Use the file location and path of your images. To add and change the properties of images in the HTML page created in previous chapters.
Table Borders es 9. Inserting a Table 9.
Take out a piece of paper and a writing instrument and draw a rough sketch of your table. Repeat the data tags on a new line for n each cell in that row. This will save a great deal of time rp when you actually begin to enter the code.
On the next line. Lay out where you want to place your elements and data. A table starts with the basic structure of a square with four borders. When you are done with your table. To add a table to your webpage. Green Gold Silver visible borders. Repeat the process to add additional rows.
This will make it easier to read your HTML code and to make future changes. Each cell has four borders and can store text.
Keep your row and data tags on their own unique lines. It is now considered bad form to use tables to set the structure of your webpage and tables should therefore be used to list data only. Inserting a Table: When you are done with the row. Inside the table are intersecting columns vertical and rows horizontal which create cells.
Basic Tables ly! The border color will be applied to the table border. Table Borders: Creates a table with a 6 ple Red Black Blue pixel thick border. The thickness will only be applied to the table border and not the individual cells. If you wish to change the color. Borders can help to make your table stand out more and adds visual interest. To assign a border.
Table Headers: To add a table header. Table headers appear at the top of the table. Repeat steps 2 through 7 for each row in your table until done.
Enter the information you want as your header. At the point where you want to add the table. Type the information you want to contain in the cell. Repeat steps 3 through 5 for each cell until done with the row. To add a table with a border and a header in the HTML page created in earlier chapters. Inserting Iframes es What are Iframes? Setting Height and Width os For es example. Values are defined either in pixels or as a percentage of the browser window.
Iframes ly! The most common usage of the Iframe element is to insert content from another webpage. What is an Iframe?: Similar to rp inserting an image in your webpage.
Setting Height and Width: Inserting an Iframe: The target and name must have the same value. Using an Iframe for a Link Target: At the point where you want to add the Iframe. Set an Iframe to be the target for a link to open into. To place an Iframe into your webpage and set the width and height.
Add a few lines by typing three lines of: Text Boxes os Text Areas rp Submit Button lua Radio Buttons n tio About Forms Menu Lists Reset Button va Sending to E-mail es Check Boxes pu Most Web servers accommodate the rp processing of CGI scripts. What happens with the data is a decision you will need to make. If you know a language such as Perl. You will need to make the necessary changes to the CGI script that you use n script variables.
Once the user inputs all of the information. Creates the structure for the form. To begin creating a form using CGI script. You can use a script to manage the data. About Forms: Forms ly! Most forms are processed using CGI scripts.
There are also hundreds of free scripts available online that you can use. Keep in mind that this is not a good solution if you are capturing sensitive data such as credit card numbers. To send the information to an e-mail address. Sending es your form data to an e-mail address is a good solution if your form is simple.
Sending to E-mail: You es must also specify a unique name for the text box using the NAME attribute. In this case. This is common e in situations where you ask for feedback that may require multiple sentences.
You have three choices when assigning a value to the WRAP attribute: You can change the width of the field that is displayed by using the SIZE attribute. Text Areas: Text boxes are typically used when the input requires a single line of text. Text Boxes: By default. You can also control how text wraps within the text area using the WRAP -f attribute.
Identifies the element as rp Attributes: To create a text box. Text areas hold up to Text Areas. If you want your check boxes to all appear on a separate line. Check Boxes: Remember that the value you assign is a description of the checkbox.
To create check boxes. You can group the check boxes using the same NAME es attribute for each element. The menu list appears as a drop-down list and allows the user to select their choice. Business V with the list of choices Result: Menu Lists: Submit Button: You must have a submit button in your form in order to receive the data.
Radio buttons allow you to present a series of choices grouped under the same NAME attribute but only allows the user to select a single choice. Radio Result: Radio Example: Radio Buttons: To add radio buttons. Changing the Tab Order: Users can navigate through the elements of your form by using the Tab key on their keyboard.
Reset Button: Reset n tio To change the tab order. To insert a reset button. Any element tag in your form. How did you hear about us? Tab order follows your o TV. Radio specifications. At the point where you want to insert the form. On the last line.
Repeat steps for each choice until finished. Type a space and then the attributes: At the point in the form where you want to add a menu list. At the point in the form where you want to add a text area.
At the point in the form where you want to add a check box. At the point in the form where you want to add the submit button. Within each element tag. At the point in the form that you want to add radio buttons. At the point in the form where you want to add the reset button. At the point in your HTML page where you want to enter a form. To create a basic form with different elements and send the form to an e-mail address.
Radio Adding Video os About Video and Audio Files Adding Audio rp Linking to Video and Audio Files es Negating the need for a plug-in with most browsers. Linking to Video and Audio Files: The most basic way to provide audio and video files to your visitors is to link directly to the files.
Just as with other links.
Browse more videos
If you choose to use this method. HTML5 offers a new element. You can upload your videos to YouTube and use that as your source to display your videos. The benefit to this is twofold. Before the adoption of HTML5. When clicked. Video and Audio ly! About Video and Audio Files: Our Commercial This link appears as m underlined text.
You must also tell your browser the. There are currently three major video file types supported. They are: MP4, WebM and Ogg. It may be a good idea to add multiple file types to your HTML coding to ensure compatibility across many browser platforms. You will be able to tell. The browser your user is implementing will use the first recognized format of. When you. There is no value attached to this attribute as it will just add basic controls to your video file.
Any text you enter will only be lua. Start Tag:. Sample Video. Your browser does not support this file type. Displays a video, with play, pause and volume controls, -f. If the browser does not support the video the text you entered will be displayed: You must also tell your browser the type. There are currently three major audio file types supported.
MP3, Wav and Ogg. It is important to add at least two versions of your file, to increase the likelihood of your users browser being able to play your audio. You will be able to tell what type of file you are working with by checking either the extension at the end of your file, or looking at your file properties.
The browser your user is implementing will use the first recognized format of your audio file. Any text you enter will only be displayed if the file type is not supported by the browser. Displays your audio file with controls for your user to play the file. Displays any entered text if file is not Sa.
Displays the video in an Iframe pixels wide by pixels high. You can upload your own videos to a YouTube account or use any other video from YouTube. This will actually give you the proper coding you need. Using YouTube to Display Video: At the point where you want your video placed.
To add an embedded audio for older browsers. At the point where you want your audio placed. At the point where you want to add the link. To add you source file. At the point where you want to add a YouTube video. Add controls to your video by typing: To add text for unsupported files.
To add an embedded video for older browsers. Add the width and height attributes by typing: All video or audio files should be chosen from an existing file on your computer for this exercise with the exception of the YouTube video file.
Web Standards: Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML
File Not Supported. Paste your selected code from the chosen YouTube page Share Embed section. To be add video and audio to your webpage.
Missing Images. HTML must be exact in order to work correctly. And remember. If all else fails. Troubleshooting ly! Like any other programming language. You should also check that the image has been uploaded to your Web server. By taking the time to double-check your work. Always proofread your documents and check for missing end tags or other elements. It is critical that you test your website to avoid such problems. When you test your webpages.
Broken Links. A single mistyped or missing character can reek havoc in your webpages. CSS Syntax es Creating an External CSS os Creating an Internal Style Sheet ID and Class n tio Linking to a CSS rp Once the style sheet is created. Browser Default In the order of recognized importance: Internal Style pu 3. CSS Declarations always end with a semicolon. Each rule within CSS has two components: The Selector is the element to which the rule applies and is followed by a space.
CSS Syntax: External Style Sheet 4. Inline Style 2. Cascading Style Sheets ly! You can assign multiple lua declarations to a single selector by separating the declarations with a semicolon. It is important to note that declarations apply not only to the specified element. We will discuss how to write specific rules in the next chapter.
Creates a CSS with the rule defining all level 1 headings as maroon and italicized and all level 2 n headings as yellow. Linking to a Cascading Style Sheet: The document as a text file with a. Creating an External CSS: Replaced by the name of your style sheet. Your text editor. Links the style sheet to the HTML page.
Your CSS rules. Once you have listed your rules. Creating an Internal Style Sheet: Because the coding is placed within your HTML page. Comments only appear within the CSS code and are not displayed in the Web browser.
No attributes are required. The notes identifying the code as the color of the logo will not appear. This can be useful if your website consists of a single. Simply type the rules in the same manner as external style sheets. Created in CSS file. Follow the name with the declarations surrounded by curly brackets.
Introduction text here. In this instance capitalization is very important. Once the class is created. They are ID and Class. Sa Speech text here. You could create two classes within your rules that apply to both types of paragraphs. It is defined with the pound symbol. You can create classes in both internal and external style sheets when you want to apply different style rules to specific sets of tags.
This is useful when you want to draw extra attention to a specific os heading on your webpage. This is my First Heading. ID and Class: The ID selector is used when you want to change the style for a single.
Whichever tag you decide to style. It is a good idea to keep inline styling to a minimum as you lose much of the advantage of style sheets. The styled paragraph will have bold text and be green. Inline Styling: In your HTML document.
In your text editor. Save the file as a text file with a. On each new line. Type your comments or notes. On the line after the last rule. Covered at the end of the next chapter. Margins va Styling Links or Letter Spacing Kerning n tio Text Alignment rp Borders e Emphasizing Text Bold and Italic Text Color lua Number and Bullet Styles -f Indenting os Text Wrapping Font Sizes Fonts pu Sizing Elements ple Decoration es Working with Text in CSS ly!
Generally this property is used to remove underlines from links. If the element has inherited italics from a os previous element and you want to remove the italics. Sets the CSS rule to apply boldness of to the n text of paragraphs. Emphasizing Text Bold and Italic: If the font you are using does not have an italic version. Sets the CSS rule to italicize the text of paragraphs. The most commonly used is pixels px. Sets the CSS rule to indent the first line of paragraphs by 35 pixels.
Uppercase turns all letters into uppercase tio similar to using the caps lock key. There are three values available: The value you assign can be in the form of pixels px. Sets the CSS rule to capitalize every letter in the paragraphs. When listing multiple fonts they are separated by a comma. Sets the CSS rule to center all level 1 headings. Block-level text are paragraphs. Sets the CSS rule to display all paragraph text in 1. It is generally a good idea to use the em value.
The value you assign can be a numerical value in the form of pixels px. Font Sizes: The default font size for browsers is 16px. Letter Spacing Kerning: Kerning is a term that refers to controlling the horizontal spacing between characters of text. The value you assign can be in lua the form of points pt.
You can assign either a hexadecimal e value or use the name of a color. Sets the CSS rule to apply a level of two times the lua height of the font as the leading. The value you assign is typically expressed as a multiple of the height of the font. Line Spacing Leading: Sets the CSS rule to apply a maroon font color to all level 1 headings. Text Color: The value you assign can be in points pt.
Sets the CSS rule to apply a left margin of 30 pixels to all level 2 headings.
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Sets the CSS rule to apply padding of 30 pixels around all level 1 headings. Sets the CSS rule to apply a solid navy border. Sets the CSS rule to apply a solid navy border around all level 1 headings with a 10px padding. After you have indicated which border style you want. Sets the CSS rule to apply circles as the bullets for ple all unordered lists.
Sets the CSS rule to make all unselected links navy with no underline. If you want to change the link properties. Sets all unordered lists to use the image as bullet.
Number and Bullet Styles: This helps visitors know where they have been already. Value choices for unordered lists are: The value choice for this property is the file name of the image you want to use. Styling Links: Value choices for ordered lists are: Sizing Elements: Text Wrapping: Sets the CSS rule to turn off text-wrapping for all div or elements. The default for any element is to automatically wrap text. All image tags are resized to x pixels.
When defining text shadows you need to set a value for the horizontal shadow. You also need to set a value for the color of the shadow. Sets the CSS rule to show all level 1 headings with a 5pt shadow in blue.
Open your HTML page created in earlier lessons. Open your text editor and start a new document. Save the document as a text file. Images es Sets the CSS rule to make the background color of your webpage light blue. Creating Backgrounds in CSS ly!
Like other color selection properties you can use either a hexadecimal value or color name. When using an image as a background. It is important to select an image that does not compete with the text or other elements of your webpage. Using a complex image may result in difficulties when users are trying to view your webpage. Applies the CSS rule to make your background the m selected image and to have the image repeat vertically only. The background of your whole page is defined using the body selector.
Fixed Images:You use relative links to refer to e pages on the same website. Properly understood, the Watercolor Clock holds the key to the magical I decided that I had to come up with world of watercolor. Submit Button lua Iframes 63 pu 3. Actions 49 Cascading Style Sheets.
Values in pixels. This is useful when you have several es images you want to display in different sections of your page. Most forms are processed using CGI scripts. ID and Class n tio
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